Vol. 3, Issue 2, Part A (2021)
Hydrodistillation extraction, GC-MS analysis and biological activities of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha arvensis essential oil
Saiqa Yousaf, Sumera rani, Ashfaq Ahmad, Faiza Altaf
The purpose of the study was to examine the chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant capabilities of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha arvensis essential oils. The essential oils were extracted using the traditional hydrodistillation process and evaluated using GC-MS. Thymus is a genus of valuable medicinal herbs that are highly recommended owing to the therapeutic effects of its essential oils, which are often known as thyme oil. The essential oils of Thymus vulgaris were tested for phytochemical activity and scientific support of traditional usage. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-M) were used to examine the hydrodistillated oil produced from wild thyme species. Forty-seven components were identified. Among those thymol (60.55%), terpinene (8.53%), p-cymene (9.48%) and carvacrol (3.35%) were the major constituents. Other components were present in less than 2% of the total. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to identify the components in Mentha arvensis essential oil. The essential oil study resulted in the discovery of twenty-eight compounds, accounting for 92.85% of the oil compositions. Menthone (29.42 percent), Menthol (21.35 percent), Isomenthone (10.85 percent), Eucalyptol (6.95 percent), neo-Menthol (4.75 percent), cis-Piperitone oxide (3.63 percent), Linalool (2.22 percent), Thymol (1.64 percent), Dl-Limonene (1.48 percent), and -Phellandrene (3.22 percent) were just the major components. Thymus vulgaris was investigated for antimicrobial activity against seven common food-borne bacteria and fungi: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans using disc diffusion method. Thyme oil showed positive results against each pathogen. Antibacterial activity of Mentha arvensis was analyzed against six bacteria: Using the micro wells approach, Candida albicans (C. albicans), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps. aeruginosa), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Staphylococcus aureus (St. aureus) were employed. Essential oil gave positive results against each bacterium. The essential oil of Mentha arvensis was tested for antifungal efficacy against Candida flexuosus. At all concentrations, essential oil proved effective against F. solani. The antioxidant activity of thyme essential oil was determined using the DPPH test. Results showed, antioxidant activity is directly proportional to phenolic content.
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Saiqa Yousaf, Sumera rani, Ashfaq Ahmad, Faiza Altaf. Hydrodistillation extraction, GC-MS analysis and biological activities of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha arvensis essential oil. Int. J. Chem. Biol. Sci. 2021;3(2):24-35.