Duke Okoro, Lily Chovwe Diejomaoh
The coastal environment of the Niger Delta sub-region of Nigeria has been degraded over the years as a result of anthropogenic activity, particularly oil exploration and exploitation. This study is carried out to investigate if there are human influences on the quality of sediment in Odeama creek. Water samples were obtained from 20 sampling points and four control points during wet and dry season. The samples were analyzed using standard methods and procedures. The physical and chemical parameters analyzed showed no statistical difference (p> 0.05) at 95% confidence limit between sampling points except copper, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05) at 95% confidence interval during the wet season. The particle size analyses are in the order: sand > clay > silt. The percentage composition observed ranged from 52. 90 – 73. 20%, 15.60 – 33.20%, 5.50 - 19.0% for (sand, clay and silt respectively) and 70.6 –83.40%, 5.40 – 13.80%, 9.30 – 19.90% for (sand, clay and silt respectively); pH range of 2.80 – 5.10 and 4.30 – 6.70; TOC, 0.34 – 1.35mg/kg and 0.78 – 3.03 mg/kg; THC, 0.69 – 4.68mg/kg and 0.88 – 106.14 mg/kg; PAH, 0.00 – 3.54 mg/kg and 0.57 – 72.55mg/kg; chloride, 444.86 – 804.50 mg/kg and 924.71 – 1624mg/kg; Iron, 39.31 – 1171 mg/kg and 24.16 – 166.27 mg/kg; Zn, 1.04 – 30.98 mg/kg and 3.44 – 23.14 mg/kg, Cr, 0.01 –0.22 mg/kg and 0.002 – 0.04mg/kg; Pb, 0.00 – 0.06 mg/kg and 0.28-2.16 mg/kg during the wet and dry season respectively. The high values of PAH, THC, Iron, zinc, sulphate, chloride and sodium could be attributable to anthropogenic influence from illegal bunkering, oil spillage and runoff from surrounding farmlands. Low TOC and heavy metals with the exception of Iron; is an indication that most of the heavy metals and organic compounds produced from the observed anthropogenic influence in the study area may be dissolved more in the water column due to high percentage of sand particles in the study area. The level of PAH and THC observed could be detrimental to aquatic life and humans. Environmental monitoring of anthropogenic activities should therefore be conducted to curtail the adverse effect of the exceedances observed in this study.
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